1. Meaningful Material
Participants understand (and therefore learn) material only when it is related to their existing experience
- Pitch your session at the participants level, not yours.
- Present the topic in definite form or sequence.
- Use plenty of examples, illustrations, analogies and anecdotes.
- Always move from the known to the unknown: that is, begin with what the student already knows or has experienced.
- Make your material as concrete as possible, avoid abstractions.
- Find out what your participants already know or have experienced before.
2. Active Learning
Participants learn more quickly and effectively when they are actively involved in the learning process
- Ask questions to stimulate
- Plan for exercises and tests in sessions
- Use projects and assignments to supplement lessons
- Use discussion methods from time to time
- Provide plenty of practical work
3. Primacy and Recency
Participants can recall well those things they learn first and last in sequence
- Give a preview of the session
- Summarise the important points of the session at the end
- Prepare carefully what you are going to say and do during the first few minutes of the session
- Remind participants from time to time of the sequence in which they have learned a topic
Learning proceeds more effectively when both instructor and participant give feedback to each other
- Encourage participants to ask questions
- Test frequently
- Discuss and correct errors; do not criticise them
- Give participants knowledge of results as quickly as possible
5. Over Learning
Forgetting is reduced significantly by frequent attempts at recall of learned material.
- Ask frequent questions
- Provide exercises which force participants to recall previous learning
- At the start of each session, ask participants to summarise briefly the previous session
- Include review periods in your timetable
- Train your participants to use overlearning during their private study
- Supply summaries of session material
Learning which is rewarded is more likely to be retained.
- When a participant gives the right answer – tell them so
- Provide for early success in learning a new topic
- Assist participants and turn mistakes into learning experiences
7. Multiple Sense Learning
- Combine telling, showing and doing – don’t rely on one only
- Provide as many audio-visual aids as possible
- Make certain that you and your aids can be, and are easily seen and heard
- If you have a model as one of your aids, let the participants handle it as well as see it and hear you talk about it
- Allow for practice and skills rehearsal
Many of these principles overlap one another eg. Active Learning and Overlearning.
For a good understanding of learning you need to develop a clear picture of the relationships which hold these principles together